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中国每年因病虫害致粮食损失1400万吨

作者:经济日报记者 刘慧    |     来源:经济日报记者 刘慧    |     发布时间:2021-05-06     |     切换:简体 繁體    |     字号:[        ]

减少粮食病虫害损失(shi),对于(yu)我国(guo)粮食产量保持在(zai)1.3万亿斤以(yi)上意(yi)义重大(da)。新型植保社会化(hua)服务组(zu)织逐渐发展(zhan)成(cheng)为(wei)我国(guo)病虫害科学防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)、绿色防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)的主力军,有效(xiao)解决了病虫害防(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)中存在(zai)的难点(dian)和痛点(dian)。

 

人(ren)生病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)要(yao)治疗,庄稼有(you)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害了,也需要(yao)治。小麦条锈病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)与(yu)赤霉(mei)病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)、水(shui)稻“两迁”害虫(chong)(chong)(chong)、草(cao)地贪夜蛾、黏(nian)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)、玉米(mi)螟、红蚂(ma)蚁……今年(nian)受气候条件和境外(wai)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)源(yuan)入(ru)侵(qin)等因素(su)影(ying)响,农(nong)作物病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害呈重发态势。有(you)专家(jia)估(gu)算,我(wo)国农(nong)作物常年(nian)发生的病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)草(cao)鼠害种类(lei)达1600余种,其中可造(zao)成严重危害的有(you)100多(duo)种,每年(nian)因病(bing)(bing)(bing)(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害导(dao)致粮食损失1400万吨。


减少粮(liang)食(shi)病虫害(hai)损失(shi),对于(yu)今(jin)年我(wo)国实现“粮(liang)食(shi)产(chan)量保持在1.3万亿斤以(yi)上”稳(wen)产(chan)增产(chan)的目标(biao)意义(yi)重大(da)。目前,“虫口夺(duo)粮(liang)”保卫战(zhan)已经(jing)打响,这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)场只能赢不能输(shu)的战(zhan)争。我(wo)国病虫害(hai)存在类型较(jiao)多、破坏性强、周期长等特点,防治难度大(da);而且,一(yi)家一(yi)户小农生(sheng)产(chan)仍然占据主导(dao)地(di)位(wei),农村劳动力短缺(que)、土地(di)经(jing)营规(gui)模小、机械化水(shui)平低等问(wen)(wen)题的存在,使(shi)得(de)病虫害(hai)防治难上加难。谁去(qu)防虫治病?这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)当前我(wo)国粮(liang)食(shi)植保过(guo)程中必须面对的问(wen)(wen)题。


近(jin)年来,我国(guo)探(tan)索统(tong)(tong)防(fang)(fang)统(tong)(tong)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、联(lian)防(fang)(fang)联(lian)控的(de)病(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害(hai)(hai)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)模式,积极引导和(he)扶持(chi)病(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害(hai)(hai)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)专(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)服务(wu)公(gong)司、专(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)合作(zuo)社等(deng)新型(xing)(xing)植(zhi)保(bao)社会化(hua)(hua)服务(wu)组(zu)织(zhi),开展(zhan)(zhan)社会化(hua)(hua)、规模化(hua)(hua)、集约化(hua)(hua)病(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害(hai)(hai)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),应(ying)用(yong)生(sheng)物(wu)、生(sheng)态、物(wu)理、化(hua)(hua)学等(deng)多种防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)措施,使用(yong)高(gao)效、低毒、环境友好型(xing)(xing)农(nong)药,提高(gao)施药技术,提高(gao)农(nong)药利用(yong)率,实(shi)现粮食降(jiang)本增(zeng)效,推(tui)动了粮食生(sheng)产绿(lv)色(se)发展(zhan)(zhan)。目前(qian),我国(guo)农(nong)作(zuo)物(wu)病(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害(hai)(hai)专(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)化(hua)(hua)统(tong)(tong)防(fang)(fang)统(tong)(tong)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)发展(zhan)(zhan)如火(huo)如荼(tu),一大(da)批病(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害(hai)(hai)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)专(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)服务(wu)公(gong)司、专(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)合作(zuo)社等(deng)新型(xing)(xing)植(zhi)保(bao)社会化(hua)(hua)服务(wu)组(zu)织(zhi)做得风(feng)生(sheng)水起。据(ju)统(tong)(tong)计,2020年全国(guo)专(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)(zhuan)业(ye)(ye)化(hua)(hua)统(tong)(tong)防(fang)(fang)统(tong)(tong)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)服务(wu)组(zu)织(zhi)达9.3万个(ge),三大(da)粮食作(zuo)物(wu)病(bing)虫(chong)(chong)(chong)害(hai)(hai)统(tong)(tong)防(fang)(fang)统(tong)(tong)治(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)覆(fu)盖率达41.9%。


如今,新型(xing)植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)社(she)会(hui)化(hua)(hua)服务组织(zhi)逐渐发展成(cheng)为我(wo)国病虫害科(ke)学(xue)防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)、绿色防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)的主力(li)军,有效(xiao)(xiao)解(jie)(jie)决了病虫害防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)中存在(zai)的难(nan)点(dian)和(he)痛点(dian)。一(yi)(yi)(yi)是解(jie)(jie)决了“谁去防(fang)(fang)虫治(zhi)病”的难(nan)题。二是解(jie)(jie)决了“一(yi)(yi)(yi)家一(yi)(yi)(yi)户”小规模经营防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)难(nan)度大、用药(yao)(yao)(yao)成(cheng)本高(gao)的问题。有的植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)社(she)会(hui)化(hua)(hua)服务组织(zhi)一(yi)(yi)(yi)年作(zuo)业面(mian)积达(da)十几万(wan)亩(mu)(mu)(mu)甚至几十万(wan)亩(mu)(mu)(mu),通过与(yu)农(nong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)制(zhi)造企业加强合作(zuo),能够(gou)获(huo)得直供(gong)直销的大包装(zhuang)农(nong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)。三是提高(gao)了粮食植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)机械(xie)化(hua)(hua)水平。我(wo)国粮食耕(geng)种(zhong)收(shou)机械(xie)化(hua)(hua)水平虽然达(da)到80%以上,但受到地理条件限制(zhi),植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)机械(xie)化(hua)(hua)水平仍然很低。在(zai)利益考(kao)量下,植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)社(she)会(hui)化(hua)(hua)服务组织(zhi)大量采(cai)用高(gao)效(xiao)(xiao)植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)机械(xie)和(he)农(nong)用无人机作(zuo)业,一(yi)(yi)(yi)台植(zhi)保(bao)(bao)(bao)机械(xie)一(yi)(yi)(yi)天作(zuo)业面(mian)积50亩(mu)(mu)(mu)左(zuo)右,一(yi)(yi)(yi)架(jia)农(nong)用无人机一(yi)(yi)(yi)天作(zuo)业面(mian)积500亩(mu)(mu)(mu)左(zuo)右,而1个劳(lao)动力(li)一(yi)(yi)(yi)天作(zuo)业面(mian)积最多5亩(mu)(mu)(mu)左(zuo)右。四是通过推广使用精准施(shi)药(yao)(yao)(yao)技术和(he)绿色防(fang)(fang)控技术,有效(xiao)(xiao)减少个人施(shi)肥打药(yao)(yao)(yao)“跑冒滴漏(lou)”,实(shi)现(xian)农(nong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)减量化(hua)(hua)目标。实(shi)践中,有的农(nong)户用药(yao)(yao)(yao)意识淡薄,在(zai)打药(yao)(yao)(yao)过程中存在(zai)“多打药(yao)(yao)(yao)”“乱(luan)打药(yao)(yao)(yao)”“打保(bao)(bao)(bao)险药(yao)(yao)(yao)”等现(xian)象,会(hui)造成(cheng)农(nong)药(yao)(yao)(yao)污染(ran)和(he)超标残(can)留。


随着农(nong)(nong)业(ye)现代化水平的不(bu)断提升,我(wo)国逐步构(gou)建起现代植保防(fang)(fang)灾减(jian)灾体系(xi),形(xing)成(cheng)一整套成(cheng)熟的应(ying)对方(fang)案,能够做(zuo)到“全国一盘棋”防(fang)(fang)控病虫害(hai)。然而,一些地方(fang)仍然存(cun)在农(nong)(nong)民传统防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)观念浓厚、药物机械不(bu)配套、防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)质量存(cun)在纠纷(fen)、防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)服务费欠账等问题,影响病虫害(hai)有效防(fang)(fang)治(zhi)。


各地只有积极扶持植保(bao)社会化(hua)服(fu)务组织做(zuo)大做(zuo)强,不断提升专(zhuan)业化(hua)统防(fang)统治(zhi)覆盖率,打(da)好(hao)小(xiao)麦(mai)“两(liang)病一(yi)虫”防(fang)控(kong)突击战(zhan),打(da)好(hao)水稻“两(liang)虫两(liang)病”防(fang)控(kong)攻坚战(zhan),打(da)好(hao)玉(yu)米草地贪夜蛾(e)防(fang)控(kong)阻击战(zhan),千方百计保(bao)持粮(liang)食发展好(hao)势头(tou),才能赢得全年粮(liang)食丰收主动权。

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